Abstract:Introduction\nThe most frequent traumatic fractures of the spine are in the thoracic and lumbar (thoracolumbar) regions. The transition from the less mobile thoracic spine with ribs and sternum to the dynamic \nspine turns this area into a high stress zone; since most of these injuries are the consequence of high-energy trauma, mainly due to traffic accidents.1,2\n\nObjective: To describe and evaluate the clinical, radiological and postsurgical evolution obtained with different surgical treatment modalities, these modalities are: spondylectomy and posterior expander placement, double approach and posterior fusion with or without decompression in \ntraumatic thoracolumbar fractures.\n\nMethod: A longitudinal retrospective descriptive study was carried out; where patients belonging to the \"Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad del Bajío\" were included, who presented traumatic \nthoracolumbar fractures and are treated surgically during a period from January 2017 to January 2020. For the diagnosis we use X-ray of the dorsal-lumbar spine, as well as computed tomography \nand magnetic resonance imaging of the dorsal-lumbar spine. We also consider age, body mass index, work and comorbidities.\n\nResults: 39 patients were analyzed, with fractures at various sites; the most frequent fracture was: in L1 and L2, Ao spine type A4 and B2, with the most common mechanism of accidental falls. For the McCormack classification, 20 patients were grouped into (less than <7 points) and (greater than or equal to ≥ 7 points, 19 patients). Three surgical treatment techniques were evaluated: A posterior spondilectomy; B Double approach and C Posterior fusion with or without decompression. In the clinical evaluation by ENA all cases showed improvement, while ASIA there was improvement in most cases; except for one case with deterioration for group C) which represented 2.5%. Subsidence \noccurred in 23.07% (N 13) belonging to two patients with technique A) and one patient with technique B). Fusion was present in 71% (N 28), regarding angulation in all techniques there was no significant difference; however, the comparison of techniques per McCormack group equal to or greater than ≥7, a significant difference p = 0.021 was found between technique A) and technique C).\n\nConclusions. For decision making, our results suggested that fractures classified with AO Spine, \nMcCormack and ASIA, are determined for surgical treatment, for McCormack equal to or greater than ≥7 points posterior spondylectomy or double approach with long instrumentation if ASIA C, D \nand E and for the ASIA A and B long constructs only with a posterior approach, always considering the characteristics of the patient, age, body mass index, work and comorbidities.
Abstract:In this paper, we apply the Adomian decomposition method for solving Fractional SIR Epidemic Model with Atangana--Baleanu derivative. The existence and uniqueness of the solution are proved. The convergence of the series solution and the error analysis are discussed. Some numerical results are given from solving this model and compering the solution with the fourth order Runge-Kutta method.
Abstract:The applied research began with the question: What variables will be most beneficial for an empirical database to monitor the professional outcomes and employability of engineers ed-ucated at the Tecnológico Nacional de México, Tijuana Campus (TecNM). After 50 years of edu-cating more than 35,000 graduates, TecNM is uniquely positioned to identify key factors that have impacted engineer graduates’ careers and employment opportunities in Baja California, Mexico. The Fifth Helice Systematic Methodology (also known in Spanish as Quinta Helice Sistemica - QHS Methodology) was used to analyze industry needs, and representatives from government, edu-cation, business, and professional associations, including chambers of commerce, as well as spe-cialized consultants were engaged as sector experts. The preliminary results indicated key vari-ables to include in an electronic survey, which will be circulated among students and graduates of TecNM, and the data gathered will support the development of an online empirical database that will inform strategic decision making at local, regional, and national levels. The conclusions of this research suggested that the information in the database should include factors affecting student drop-out rates, such as connection and a sense of belonging, as well as those impacting employ-ability and professional advancement, such as continuing education and career preparedness.
Abstract:The main aim of the study is to determine the minimum and maximum number of hives that should be supported by determining what the lowest cost of production capacity of the beekeeping enterprises that receive support from the IPARD I program in Van province should be. The main material of the study consists of questionnaire data collected from beekeeping enterprises that receive support from the IPARD I program in Van province. There are 94 samples and they have been selected according to the "Purposive Sampling Method". The "Neyman Method", one of the simple random stratified sampling methods, has been used in the distribution of these 94 samples according to the size of the enterprises. The size of the enterprises has been determined according to the number of the hives and calculated with 95% confidence interval and %5 margin of error. According to number of hives used in production in 2016 production season, there are 17 enterprises of 0-100 colony size, 22 enterprises of 101-250 colony size, and 55 enterprises of 251 and above colony size. The beekeeping enterprise should have minimum 81 hives to earn their living. Cost curves of enterprises per 1 kg honey production has been determined and accordingly cost functions have been estimated. As a result of cost functions and quadratic trend model, the optimal production capacity in the enterprises has been determined as 674 hives.
Abstract:This paper presents a modified continuous-mass transfer matrix method (CTMM) to determine the whirling speeds and associated mode shapes of a uniform or non-uniform shaft with various (supporting) boundary conditions (BCs) and carrying any number of rigid disks. To the last end, first of all, each rigid disk is replaced by a lumped mass together with a frequency-dependent equivalent mass moment of inertia and the transverse displacements of the entire shaft are also represented by the complex numbers, then, the continuous free-free shaft is subdivided into several shaft segments (each with distributed mass) and any two adjacent shaft segments are connected by a node at which a rigid disk is attached. Next, the continuous-mass transfer matrix (CTM) for the integration constants of arbitrary two adjacent shaft segments joined at an intermediate node is derived, and the characteristic equation of the entire shaft-disk (S-D) system is obtained by multiplying all CTMs for all intermediate nodes and considering the BCs of the entire shaft. Based on the foregoing formulation, the whirling motion of a 3-D rotating shaft mounted by any number of rigid disks is similar to the transverse vibration of a 2-D stationary beam carrying any number of concentrated elements. Finally, from the characteristic equation, one may obtain the associated whirling speed and, in turn, the corresponding mode shape. The numerical results of CTMM have been compared with those of the existing literature or the conventional finite element method (FEM) and good agreement is achieved, this confirms the reliability of the presented theory and the developed computer programs for this paper.
Abstract:Sweet’s syndrome is a serious dermatologic disorder presenting with an abrupt onset of tender plaques or lumps, fever, joint pain, headache, oral and genital lesions. According to the clinical features and underlying causes, Sweet’s syndrome can be classified into classical (or idiopathic) Sweet\'s syndrome, Malignancy allied Sweet\'s syndrome, and Drug-induced Sweet\'s syndrome. It is multifactorial in etiology and the exact cause is still undetermined. The diagnosis can be confirmed by the routine histopathologic evaluation of lesional skin biopsy. Topical and systemic steroids are the first line treatment options. Hereby, we present a concise review of the pathogenesis, classification, and the management options of this rare disorder.
Abstract:Disturbance-related drivers play a vital role in determining the spatio-temporal dynamics of riparian stand communities. This study evaluated stand structure responses to disturbance-related drivers, in Amobia, Ninian, Onwame and Pame riparian communities, in Kumawu District, Ashanti Region, Ghana. Trees were randomly sampled in 120 plots of 10 x 10 m2 dimension. Plots were laid perpendicular on the disturbance-related gradients. Individuals were quantified for their important value index, while ground cover was estimated using the Daubenmire cover abundance scale. Geometric series, Chao-1 and jackknife estimators and Hill numbers were performed to quantify community assemblages, while CCA was applied to evaluate the relationship between species assemblages and the distribution of associated environmental drivers. A total of 738 individuals, belonging to 24 families and 63 species, were recorded. Stand structural parameters were inversely related to stand composition and differed in their distribution. Amobia was the richest and diverse riparian community, in spite of registering the least stand structural parameters, while Ninian with the highest basal area, relative density, relative frequency and IVI, was the least rich and diverse; with majority of the stands being naturalized aliens and stress-tolerant (e.g., Senna alata and Tectona grandis). CCA results revealed that bushfire, grazing, farming and erosion explained 43.9% variability in stand community structure. The findings provide fundamental information on the stand structural dynamics and IVI in the four riparian communities, with a note that continuous disturbance especially in Ninian and Pame, may lead to future extinction of sensitive indigenous species, leaving only stress-tolerant invasive species
Abstract:The paper examines the influence of corporate governance (CG) on the earnings quality (EQ) of listed companies in Vietnam. We consider the issue of CG integrated from each component of the board and the supervisory board. The study uses GLS regression method, data collected at energy enterprises listed on the stock market in Vietnam in the period of 2010 - 2018, with 2162 observations. The research results have found that the board has a positive impact on the EQ, while the supervisory board does not affect the earnings quality. Besides, the audit quality, the ratio of liabilities have a positive effect on the EQ, in contrast to the percentage of state ownership, the size of the company has an opposite effect on the EQ. In addition, foreign ownership ratio, profitability do not affect the EQ. The empirical research results are a useful basis to help companies improve the EQ, thereby helping companies to consider the elements of the board and supervisory more effectively for each companies.
Abstract:In view of the current scenario, research using biodegradable polymers such as proteins and polysaccharides has been developed to minimize the disposal of synthetic plastic packaging in the environment, causing economic, social and ecological losses. The objective of this research was to evaluate the biodegradation behavior of films composed of lyophilized myofibrillary proteins (PML) from fish, palmitic fatty acid, cassava starch (AM) and glycerol in the soil. Initially, PML electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to assess the purity of the samples after extraction. The biodegradation of composite films (F1- commercial film - PVC polyvinyl chloride), F2 (1% PML and 0.5% palmitic acid) and F3 (1% PML, 2% starch and 30% glycerol), was examined in conditions of burial of internal soil for 21 days, using the soil\'s natural microflora as a degradation medium, followed by the loss of percentage mass and by absorption spectroscopy in the infrared with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR/ATR). The electrophoretic profile of PML identified the presence of myosin and actin that are important for the production of films. Films F2 and F3 are considered biodegradable due to the high percentage of mass loss (%) and changes and displacement of amides in the FTIR, being confirmed by the molecular evaluation of the components of the structures of the films. As expected, PVC (F1) commercial synthetic film did not degrade. Thus, the two films evaluated (F2 and F3) are considered highly biodegradable in the soil, contributing to the reduction of environmental impact.
Abstract:The objective of this study aims to develop a microemulsified system based on hydroxyapatite and the extract of Dysphania ambrosioides L. (D. ambrosioides L.) and to evaluate the effects of this system on the functional activity of human blood cells for Streptococcus mutans. The hydrophilic extract of Dysphania ambrosioides L. (200 mg/mL) was obtained using a rotary evaporation process. The microemulsified formulation was composed of distilled water, capric acid caprylic acid, sorbitan oleate (Span 80®), Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80®), and 1-butanol, in which synthetic hydroxyapatite and the extract of D. ambrosioides L were incorporated. Analyzes physical-chemical and rheological formulations was performed. Human blood was collected for assays of rheological, cell viability, phagocytosis, and microbicidal activity. The physical-chemical revealed that the microemulsions are oil/water. There was an increase in blood viscosity, regardless of dose, in the presence of the extract incorporated into the microemulsion. The highest blood viscosities were observed when the blood was incubated with the microemulsion incorporated with extract at a concentration of 100 ng/mL. The incorporation of the extract or hydroxyapatite into the microemulsion altered the flow curve of normal blood. As for the area of hysteresis, almost all formulations behaved like Newtonian fluids, except the microemulsion incorporated with hydroxyapatite. The microemulsion incorporated or not with extract and/or hydroxyapatite increased de phagocytosis and microbicidal activity. These data suggest that D. ambrosioides L extract and hydroxyapatite incorporated into the microemulsion can be used for future applications in bacterial infections, especially for the buccal cavity.