Teachers join the teaching profession for the passion of teaching and for their professional growth. The factors that influence teachers’ choice to join teaching profession varies from person to person, but most of the teachers claim that teaching is not an easy profession and it requires same amount of dedication and concentration as any other profession. The exploration of factors influencing teachers’ choice, provides suitable information for enhancing reasons for teacher retention in the profession. Main objective of this study is to investigate the factors that affect teachers’ choice to join the teaching profession in private schools of District South Karachi. The Questionnaire was prepared for teachers to explore the factors that motivate teachers towards teaching profession. \n\nA sample of 85 teachers is selected from different private schools of District South Karachi. The teachers’ experience ranges from 0 to above 10 years. Some of the respondents have obtained a professional degree before entering the profession, whilst a few of them do not have any professional degree for teaching. The data obtained is tabulated and analyzed by percentage values.\nThe data is collected through Questionnaire Distribution by Personal Visit. The questionnaire consists of two parts, of which the first part consists of demographic information and the second part consists of items based on various factors for choosing teaching profession as a career. The items of the questionnaire are designed on a 5 point Likert scale.\n\nOn the basis of ANOVA results, the overall models are significant. The alternative hypotheses is accepted and on basis of regression analysis it is said that there is an impact of factors influencing teachers’ choice on teaching profession.\n\nThe research concludes that there is an impact and a relationship between the factors that affect teachers’ choice and the teaching profession. The major recommendation drawn out from the research suggests that the teachers have a positive perception and passion towards their profession, but the salary package offered to them is not sufficient. It is suggested that the salary package offered to teachers should be a handsome amount which can help fulfill their daily living expenses, as teaching is a profession just like any other profession. \nIt is also suggested that it should be made compulsory for the teaching professionals to be professionally qualified in the teaching field as teaching is a passion calling job and provides a high esteemed status in the society.
Early Childhood Education has started popularizing in Pakistan in recent years and several institutes/schools are increasing day by day. Keeping in view the increasing demand for Early Childhood Education centers across the country, it is necessary to know whether the parents have awareness about the importance of Early Childhood Education level or not and whether they accept the efforts being put in the child\'s education by the teachers. Therefore, this study aims to identify, examine and analyze the level of awareness and acceptance among parents of Early Childhood Education children, living in rural areas of Karachi. This study also intended to highlight the problems faced by these parents regarding the Early Childhood Education of their children. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews to collect in-depth information from eight parents, whose children are studying in Public schools at the Early Childhood level. The data was then analyzed to deduct themes. The results of the study reveal that all parents that are included in this research are aware of the importance of Early Childhood Education. These parents are also aware of the different strategies that may be applied to teach young children, to make learning easy and enjoyable. These parents also accept their responsibility for getting their child educated and accept that education is an essential component of human development. Lack of finance and limited resources have been identified as the major problem faced by parents residing in Rural areas of Karachi, in catering to Early Childhood Education for their children. It is recommended that Early Childhood Education should be made free and accessible to all children.
Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy worldwide. The incidence of BCC has increased in the last few decades. Conventional surgery is the most frequent treatment modality for this cancer, but it also has the risk of local recurrence. The complete surgical excision may be considered the gold standard for treatment.\nObjectives: This study was designed to identify prospectively the incidence of incomplete excision associated with 5mm margin excision of BCCs among patients diagnosed at Farshchian hospital, Hamadan. The main aim of this study was to evaluate patients and tumors characteristics as the related risk factors. To the best of our knowledge, this clinical trial for the first time in Iran performed with predetermined surgical excision margin. \nMaterials and methods: From April 2011 to April 2012, a total of 125 Basal cell carcinoma lesions (115 patients) were excised in Farshchian hospital. The elliptical excisions were performed with 5mm clinically margin around the lesions suspicious for BCC. Routine histopathologic examination assessed the specimens. The following variables were recorded for each patient: age, gender, anatomic location and duration of lesion, first clinical diagnosis, histological subtype and details of the completeness of excision. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.\nResults: Among the total of 125 cases, 75(60%) were male and 50 (40%) were female (1.5:1). The age ranged from 32 to 93 years with mean age of 64.5. More than 96% of lesions located on head and neck. The scalp was the most frequent site (33.6%), followed by nose (29.6%). The lesions persistent duration on the skin ranged from one month to 15 years with mean duration of 2 year. Solid subtype was seen in 61% of lesions. In general incidence of incomplete excision was 20%. Factors related to incomplete excision were age (P-Value: 0.003) and anatomic location of lesion (P-Value: 0.032). It was more frequent in older patients. So there was no incomplete margin in patients younger than 50 years old. Incomplete excision is more common on the ears (66.6%) and periorbital region (50%).There was no statistically significant difference in completeness of excision according to duration of lesions (P-Value: 0.36), histopathologic subtype (P-Value: 0.12), gender (P-Value: 0.12) and first clinical diagnosis (P-Value: 0.069). Clinical diagnoses were significantly consistent with histopathological findings.\nConclusion: Appropriate clinical assessment and surgical margin determination are important in complete resection of BCCs. To avoid incomplete excision of high risk histopathologic type of BCCs on sensitive anatomic locations, these tumors should be excised with wide margins. A 5mm margin was acceptable for this purpose.